AmpathChat #59 - Diagnosing Pulmonary TB

Infectious Diseases

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Tuberculosis Report of 2018, an estimated 10 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) were reported in 2017.... Read more

AmpathChat #54 - Helicobacter Pylori: An Update

Infectious Diseases

Helicobacter pylori is a highly prevalent curved gram-negative bacterium. Seropositivity rates in South-Africa range between 60% and 100%. It causes more than 90% of duodenal ulcers and up to 80% of gastric ulcers. Atrophic gastritis due to H. pylori can lead to gastric cancer.... Read more

AmpathChat #50 - Bordetella Pertussis

Infectious Diseases

Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a highly infectious disease of the respiratory tract. Bordetella pertussis is classically regarded as the sole agent of pertussis. However, infection with other Bordetella species, such as B. parapertussis and B. holmesii, can cause a similar, though typically milder, clinical picture.... Read more

AmpathChat #47 - CRP Vs PCT

Infectious Diseases

Clinicians are faced with a growing population of immuno-compromised patients who are at risk of systemic infections. The diagnosis of bacterial septicaemia is unfortunately not straightforward. Positive blood cultures remain the gold standard.... Read more

AmpathChat #42 - Frozen Section - An Invaluable Tool For Intra-Operative Surgical Consultation

Infectious Diseases

The frozen section technique has evolved and has improved immensely from 1818, when Dutch anatomist Pieter de Reimer utilised cold brine (salt water) to harden tissues, until 1895, when Thomas Cullen, MD, published the first written frozen section technique from Johns Hopkins.... Read more

AmpathChat #40 - The Utility Of Urinary Lipoarabinomannan Antigen (LAM) In HIV Infected Patients With Suspected TB

Infectious Diseases

The urine lipoarabinomannan test (U-lam) has been marketed as an adjunct diagnostic modality in HIV-infected patients with severe immunosuppression. The test detects a cell wall component of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium that is excreted in urine. The lateral flow test format of the test (Determine TM TB-LAM Ag test) is rapid and can be performed directly on urine.... Read more

AmpathChat #35 - Update On The Management Of Carbapenemase Producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE)

Infectious Diseases

Dr Tom Frieden, Director of the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, has called carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) “nightmare bacteria”. CRE emerged in South Africa in 2011 when the first cases of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) were described.... Read more

AmpathChat #32 - Diagnosing Acute Bacterial Meningitis - The Value Of Multiplex PCR

Infectious Diseases

Acute meningitis is generally defined as having compatible symptoms for less than seven days’ duration and can be caused by a variety of bacterial, viral and fungal pathogens. Acute bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency that requires early administration of antibiotics and hospital referral for investigation and further therapy.... Read more

AmpathChat #30 - Post Exposure Prophylaxis After Occupational Exposure To HIV, HBV, And HCV

Infectious Diseases

It is important that healthcare workers (HCWs) know the steps to follow when an accidental exposure to infectious bodily fluids occurs. Viruses that can be transmitted after occupational exposure to potentially infectious bodily fluids include HIV.... Read more

AmpathChat #26 - Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) In The Outpatient Setting

Infectious Diseases

The majority of antibiotic prescriptions for systemic use are prescribed in the outpatient setting with acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) being the most common indication, followed by urinary tract infections (UTIs). In fact, general practitioners (GPs) prescribe approximately 80% of all antibiotics,... Read more

AmpathChat #20 - Diagnosing Bacterial And Viral Gastroenteritis - The Role Of Molecular Testing

Infectious Diseases

Infectious causes of gastroenteritis account for approximately 1.4 billion cases of diarrhea globally and in excess of two million deaths every year. These infections can be caused by various bacteria, viruses and parasites.... Read more

AmpathChat #18 - Chronic Kidney Disease - Updated Recommendations On Definition And Classification

Infectious Diseases

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as abnormalities of kidney structure or function, present for longer than three months, with implications for health.... Read more

AmpathChat #16 - Cervical Cancer Screening - Role Of HPV DNA Based Screening And Cytology

Infectious Diseases

Genital infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection today, and persistent infection with high-risk genotypes is the cause of cervical cancer. Over 40 HPV genotypes infect mucosal surfaces, including the anogenital epithelium (e.g. cervix, vagina, vulva, rectum, urethra, penis and anus).... Read more

AmpathChat #13 - Current Update On The Ebola Virus Outbreak

Infectious Diseases

Guinea is currently experiencing an outbreak of Ebola, which – as of 1 April – includes a suspected 127 cases to date, with 83 recorded deaths (case fatality rate of 65%). The areas of Guinea involved in the outbreak are Guékédou, Macenta, Kissidougou and Nzérékoré.... Read more

AmpathChat #11 - Diagnosing Schistosomiasis - An Update

Infectious Diseases

Schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, is a common intravascular infection caused by the Schistosoma trematode worm. Bilharzia is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa where the majority of infections are caused by S. haematobium and S. mansoni. Important transmission sites in Africa are Lake Malawi and Lake Victoria and travellers are commonly infected when swimming there.... Read more

AmpathChat #74 - A Quick Guide To COVID-19 Tests

Infectious Diseases

The repertoire of laboratory tests related to COVID-19 has expanded since the first appearance of SARS-CoV-2 in December 2019. This guide provides an update on the latest Ampath COVID-19 tests (as of March 2021), including the appropriate indications for use.... Read more