Haematology Articles

AmpathChat #64 - The Diagnosis of Vitamin B12 Deficiency Revisited

Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to devastating disabilities, morbidity and even death if not diagnosed timeously. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of Vitamin B12 deficiency can easily reverse the wide range of debilitating neurological and hematological symptoms associated with Vitamin B12 deficiency.

AmpathChat #61 SA Dyslipidaemia Guidelines

In 2016 the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) revised guidelines for the management of Dyslipidaemia.

AmpathChat #60 Stem Cell Transplantation

Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is any procedure where haematopoietic stem cells of any donor and any source are given to a recipient with the intention of repopulating the haematopoietic system in total or in part.

AmpathChat #43 - Approach to the Neutropaenic Patient

The extent of evaluation and the nature of intervention depends on duration, severity and clinical findings. The normal absolute neutrophil count (ANC) in adults is 1.5 to 7 x 10/9 per l. The following grading evolved from clinical experience with patients on cancer chemotherapy

AmpathChat #39 - Anaemia of Chronic Disease Inflammation

Anaemia of chronic disease (ACD)/inflammation is the leading cause of anaemia in hospitalised patients and the second-most common cause of anaemia after iron deficiency. The main aetiologies are infection, autoimmune disorders and malignancies.

AmpathChat #23 - The Role of PF 200 in Evaluating Platelet Dysfunction

A standard incision is made on the volar surface of the forearm with the application of 40 mmHg pressure to the upper arm Time to cessation of bleeding is recorded

AmpathChat #22 - Heparin Induced Thrombocytopaenia-HIT Happens

Most patients who receive unfractionated heparin experience a small, quick drop in their platelet count. This is called Type 1 HIT and is clinically insignificant.

AmpathChat #21 - Clinical Use of the D-Dimer Assay

Upon presentation, all patients should be carefully evaluated for clinical pretest probability of VTE using a validated clinical prediction rule (CPR) and then stratified into clinical probability groups: low, intermediate and high. The Wells prediction rules for DVT and for pulmonary embolism have been validated and are frequently used to estimate the probability of VTE before performing more definitive testing on patients.

AmpathChat #19 - Three Extra Helpful Parameters on the FBC

With the exception of pregnant women and neonates, the presence of immature granulocytes (IG) in the blood indicates a response to infection, inflammation or other stimuli of the bone marrow. Having a six-part differential count facilitates new diagnostic possibilities. The IG count includes stab cells, metamyelocytes and myelocytes, and requires a specific Sysmex analyser (XE-2100) for determination.

AmpathChat #17 - Haemostasis Problems - A Logical Approach

Haemostasis is the delicate balance between the naturally occurring procoagulant and anticoagulant mechanisms found in the body. Any shift in this balance or interference in the control mechanisms results in either a bleeding or a thrombotic tendency.

AmpathChat #14 - Acquired Haemophilia A - Are We Missing the Diagnosis

Acquired Haemophilia A is a rare bleeding disorder caused by an autoantibody to factor VIII. The condition is often mistaken for other acquired bleeding disorders, such as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). This may lead to delayed or suboptimal treatment. There is a poor correlation between measurable factor VIII or strength of the inhibitor and severity of bleeding.

AmpathChat #09 - Basic Approach to Abnormal FBC (Part 2): Platelets and WBC

A pseudo (false) thrombocytopenia, due to either a difficult bleed or ethylenediamine- tetraacetic acid (EDTA)-related platelet clumping, should be excluded by examining a peripheral blood (PB) slide or repeating the platelet count using a sodium citrate tube.

AmpathChat #09 - Basic Approach to Abnormal FBC (Part 1): RBC indices

There are three main possibilities for a microcytic anaemia, namely iron deficiency, thalassaemia and anaemia of chronic disease (ACD). Since iron deficiency is the most common cause of a microcytic anaemia, a ferritin level is recommended as an initial investigation. A low ferritin level confirms iron deficiency. A normal or raised ferritin level suggests possible thalassaemia or ACD.

AmpathChat #08 - Myelodysplastic Syndromes

The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of clonal haematopoietic disorders characterised by progressive bone marrow failure due to ineffective haematopoiesis. There are progressive cytopenias involving one or more of the myeloid cell lines, with a variable increased risk of development of acute leukaemia.

AmpathChat #07 - Transfusion Medicine (Blood Safety) The Right Blood Product to the Right Patient at the Right Time

The decision to transfuse a blood product by the clinician requires an evaluation of the risk benefit ratio for the individual patient and documented informed consent.